Stroke remains a leading cause of adult disability and the demand for stroke rehabilitation services is growing. Substantial advances are yet to be made in stroke rehabilitation practice to meet this demand and improve patient outcomes relative to current care. Several large intervention trials targeting motor recovery report that participants' motor performance improved, but to a similar extent for both the intervention and control groups in most trials. These neutral results might reflect an absence of additional benefit from the tested interventions or the many challenges of designing and doing large stroke rehabilitation trials. Strategies for improving trial quality include new approaches to the selection of patients, control interventions, and endpoint measures. Although stroke rehabilitation research strives for better trials, interventions, and outcomes, rehabilitation practices continue to help patients regain independence after stroke.