Adrenal hemorrhage and hemorrhagic masses; diagnostic workup and imaging findings

Mohamed Badawy, Ayman H. Gaballah, Dhakshinamoorthy Ganeshan, Amr Abdelalziz, Erick M. Remer, Mustafa Alsabbagh, Antonio Westphalen, Mohammed A. Siddiqui, Myles T. Taffel, Malak Itani, Akram M. Shaaban, Khaled M. Elsayes

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a rare condition. It can be traumatic or non-traumatic. Most common causes are septicemia, coagulopathy or bleeding diathesis, and underlying neoplasms. Other reported less common causes of AH are COVID-19 and neonatal stress. Clinical diagnosis of AH is challenging due to its non-specific presentation and occurrence in the setting of acute medical illness. Therefore, most cases are diagnosed incidentally on imaging. Having high clinical suspicion in the proper clinical setting for AH is crucial to avoid life-threatening adrenal insufficiency that occurs in 16–50% of patients with bilateral AH. We discuss the clinical situations that predispose to AH, review the imaging features on different imaging modalities, highlight a variety of clinical cases, imaging features that should be concerning for an underlying neoplasm, and outline the potential role of interventional radiology in management of AH.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20210753
JournalBritish Journal of Radiology
Volume94
Issue number1127
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

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