In sepsis, both necrotic and apoptotic cell death can occur. Apoptotic cells induce anergy that could impair the host response, whereas necrotic cells cause immune activation that might result in enhanced antimicrobial defenses. We determined whether adoptive transfer of apoptotic or necrotic cells impacted survival in a clinically relevant sepsis model. We also evaluated the effects of adoptive transfer of apoptotic or necrotic cells on the prototypical TH1 and TH2 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4, respectively. C57BL6/J mice had adoptive transfer of apoptotic (irradiated) or necrotic (freeze thaw) splenocytes. Controls received saline. Apoptotic cells greatly increased mortality, whereas necrotic splenocytes markedly improved survival, P ≤ 0.05. The contrasting effects that apoptotic or necrotic cells exerted on survival were mirrored by opposite effects on splenocyte IFN-γ production with greatly decreased and increased production, respectively. Importantly, either administration of anti-IFN-γ antibodies or use of IFN-γ knockout mice prevented the survival benefit occurring with necrotic cells. This study demonstrates that the type of cell death impacts survival in a clinically relevant model and identifies a mechanism for the immune suppression that is a hallmark of sepsis. Necrotic cells (and likely apoptotic cells) exert their effects via modulation of IFN-γ.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - May 27 2003|