Objectives: Lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) is an independent risk factor for recurrence and poor survival in early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC), but optimal adjuvant treatment is unknown. We aimed to compare the survival of women with early-stage EEC with LVSI treated postoperatively with observation (OBS), radiation (RAD, external beam and/or vaginal brachytherapy), or chemotherapy (CHEMO)+/−RAD. Methods: This was a multi-institutional, retrospective cohort study of women with stage I or II EEC with LVSI who underwent hysterectomy+/−lymphadenectomy from 2005 to 2015 and received OBS, RAD, or CHEMO+/−RAD postoperatively. Progression-free survival and overall survival were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: In total, 478 women were included; median age was 64 years, median follow-up was 50.3 months. After surgery, 143 (30%) underwent OBS, 232 (48.5%) received RAD, and 103(21.5%) received CHEMO+/−RAD (95% of whom received RAD). Demographics were similar among groups, but those undergoing OBS had lower stage and grade. A total of 101 (21%) women recurred. Progression-free survival (PFS) was improved in both CHEMO+/−RAD (HR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.09–0.39) and RAD (HR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.18–0.54) groups compared to OBS, though neither adjuvant therapy was superior to the other. However, in grade 3 tumors, the CHEMO+/−RAD group had superior PFS compared to both RAD (HR 0.25; 95% CI: 0.12–0.52) and OBS cohorts (HR = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.03–0.32). Overall survival did not differ by treatment. Conclusions: In early-stage EEC with LVSI, adjuvant therapy improved PFS compared to observation alone. In those with grade 3 EEC, adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiation improved PFS compared to observation or radiation alone.
- Adjuvant treatment
- Endometrial cancer
- Lymphovascular space invasion
- Uterine cancer