Context The role of adjuvant chemotherapy remains poorly defined for the management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The last meta-analysis evaluating adjuvant chemotherapy, conducted in 2005, had limited power to fully support its use. Objective To update the current evidence of the benefit of postoperative adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy compared with control (ie, surgery alone) in patients with MIBC. Evidence acquisition A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy with control for patients with MIBC. The search included the Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, and abstracts from the American Society of Clinical Oncology meetings up to May 2013. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Evidence synthesis A total of 945 patients included in nine RCTs (five previously analyzed, one updated, and three new) were examined. For overall survival, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) across all nine trials was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.99; p = 0.049). For disease-free survival, the pooled HR across seven trials reporting this outcome was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.45-0.91; p = 0.014). This disease-free survival benefit was more apparent among those with positive nodal involvement (p = 0.010). Conclusions This updated and improved meta-analysis of randomized trials provides further evidence of an overall survival and disease-free survival benefit in patients with MIBC receiving adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy after radical cystectomy.
- Adjuvant chemotherapy
- Muscle-invasive bladder cancer
- Perioperative chemotherapy