Although childhood adiposity is inversely associated with breast cancer risk, the association of childhood adiposity with mammographic density in premenopausal women has not been adequately studied. We analyzed data from 365 premenopausal women who came in for screening mammography at Washington University (St. Louis,MO)from 2015 to 2016. Body size at age 10 was selfreported using somatotype pictogram. Body mass index (BMI) at age 10 was imputed using data from Growing Up Today Study. Volpara software was used to evaluate volumetric percent density (VPD), dense volume (DV), and nondense volume (NDV). Adjusted multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between adiposity at age 10 and mammographic density measures. Adiposity at age 10 was inversely associated with VPD and positively associated with NDV. A 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI at age 10 was associated with a 6.4% decrease in VPD, and a 6.9% increase in NDV (P < 0.001). Compared with women whose age 10 body size was 1 or 2, women with body size 3 or 4 had a 16.8% decrease in VPD and a 26.6% increase in NDV, women with body size 5 had a 32.2% decrease in VPD and a 58.5% increase in NDV, and women with body sizes ≥6 had a 47.8% decrease in VPD and a 80.9% increase in NDV (P < 0.05). The associations were attenuated, but still significant after adjusting for current BMI. Mechanistic studies to understand how childhood adiposity influences breast development, mammographic density, and breast cancer in premenopausal women are needed.