Cancer gene therapy approaches have benefited greatly from the utilization of molecular-based therapeutics. Of these, adenovirus-based interventions hold much promise as a platform for targeted therapeutic delivery to tumors. However, a barrier to this progression is the lack of native adenovirus receptor expression on a variety of cancer types. As such, any adenovirus-based cancer therapy must take into consideration retargeting the vector to nonnative cellular surface receptors. Predicated upon the knowledge gained in native adenovirus biology, several strategies to transductionally retarget adenovirus have emerged. Herein, we describe the biological hurdles as well as strategies utilized in adenovirus transductional targeting, covering the progress of both adapter-based and genetic manipulation-based targeting. Additionally, we discuss recent translation of these targeting strategies into a clinical setting.