Objective: To determine if daily respiratory status improved more in extremely low gestational age (GA) premature infants after diuretic exposure compared with those not exposed in modern neonatal intensive care units. Study design: The Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program (PROP) was a multicenter observational cohort study of 835 extremely premature infants, GAs of 230/7-286/7 weeks, enrolled in the first week of life from 13 US tertiary neonatal intensive care units. We analyzed the PROP study daily medication and respiratory support records of infants ≤34 weeks postmenstrual age. We determined whether there was a temporal association between the administration of diuretics and an acute change in respiratory status in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit, using an ordered categorical ranking of respiratory status. Results: Infants in the diuretic exposed group of PROP were of lower mean GA and lower mean birth weight (P <.0001). Compared with infants unexposed to diuretics, the probability (adjusted for infant characteristics including GA, birth weight, sex, and respiratory status before receiving diuretics) that the exposed infants were on a higher level of respiratory support was significantly greater (OR, >1) for each day after the initial day of diuretic exposure. Conclusions: Our analysis did not support the ability of diuretics to substantially improve the extremely premature infant's respiratory status. Further study of both safety and efficacy of diuretics in this setting are warranted. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01435187.
- respiratory distress