A prospective study over two and a half years analysed 48 children of acute renal failure requiring dialysis therapy. The mean age was 3 years 9 months and M:F ratio was 1.8:1. Renal causes predominated, accounting for 65%, with prerenal and postrenal causes responsible for 19% and 16%. Acute glomerulonephritis was seen in 13 cases, hypovolemia secondary to gastroenteritis in 9, tubular necrosis in 6, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in 5. A delay in seeking medical attention was present in as many as 48%, and was especially common with female children. All had oligo-anuria, with fluid overload present in 18.7%, hypertension in 23%, hypotension in 16.6%, neuropsychiatric manifestations in 20%, and infections in 47%. Peritoneal dialysis was carried out in 95%, and hemodialysis in 6.2%. Urine output and renal function returned to normal within 1.5 to 16 days (mean 5.9) in the survivors. Of the 28 who survived, 19 were followed up regularly for a mean of 4.25 months and all except one had normal renal function. Factors associated with a poor prognosis included female sex, age < 1 year, neurological manifestations, and hypotension, though these were not statistically significant. Mortality in our series was 41.5%. While etiological factors have shown changing trends, mortality still remains high inspite of dialysis.
|Number of pages||5|
|State||Published - Mar 1994|