Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is an inborn disorder of granulopoiesis that in many cases is caused by mutations of the ELANE gene, which encodes neutrophil elastase (NE). Recent data suggest a model in which ELANE mutations result in NE protein misfolding, induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), and ultimately a block in granulocytic differentiation. To test this model, we generated transgenic mice carrying a targeted mutation of Elane (G193X) reproducing a mutation found in SCN. The G193X Elane allele produces a truncated NE protein that is rapidly degraded. Granulocytic precursors from G193X Elane mice, though without significant basal UPR activation, are sensitive to chemical induction of ER stress. Basal and stress granulopoiesis after myeloablative therapy are normal in these mice. Moreover, inaction of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (Perk), one of the major sensors of ER stress, either alone or in combination with G193X Elane, had no effect on basal granulopoiesis. However, inhibition of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway using a proteosome inhibitor resulted in marked neutropenia in G193X Elane. The selective sensitivity of G913X Elane granulocytic cells to ER stress provides new and strong support for the UPR model of disease pathogenesis in SCN.