Recent studies have demonstrated that ether-linked diglycerides are endogenous constituents of biologic tissues and accumulate during agonist stimulation (Daniel, L.W., Waite, M., and Wykle, R.L. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 9128-9132) and myocardial ischemia (Ford, D.A.k, and Gross, R.W. (1989) Circ. Res. 64, 173-177). Although protein kinase C previously had been thought to specifically require 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (DAG) molecular species for activation, the present study demonstrates that purified rat brain protein kinase C is activated by naturally occurring ether-linked diglycerides (e.g. 1-O-hexadec-1'-enyl-2-octadec-9'-enoyl-sn-glycerol and 1-O-hexadecyl-2-octadec-9'-enoyl-sn-glycerol) with a similar dose response curve to that for DAG molecular species. Although in vitro assays demonstrated that DAG could partially activate protein kinase C in the absence of free calcium, activation by ether-linked diglycerides required free calcium concentrations found only in stimulated cells (> 1 μM [Ca2+](free)). To substantiate these findings the α and β isoforms of protein kinase C from rat brain cortical grey matter were resolved by hydroxylapatite chromatography. Although the β-isoform of protein kinase C was substantially activated by DAG in the absence of free calcium, activation by ether-linked diglycerides had an absolute requirement for physiologic increments in free calcium ion found in stimulated cells. Since ether lipids are localized in specific subcellular membrane compartments, accumulate during several pathophysiologic perturbations and are effective activators of protein kinase C with separate and distinct calcium requirements in comparison to DAG, these results suggest that ether-linked diglycerides are important and potentially specific biologic activators of one or more isoforms of protein kinase C.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1989|