1. Electrophysiologic methods were used to study actions of bradykinin (BK) in neurones of the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig small intestine in vitro. Exposure to BK depolarized the membrane potential and elevated excitability in AH- and S-type neurones. Neuronal input resistance associated with the depolarizing responses was either decreased or unchanged in S-type and increased in AH-type neurones. 2. The selective B 2 BK receptor antagonist HOE-140, but not the selective B 1 receptor antagonist desarg 10-HOE-140, suppressed the BK-evoked responses. RT-PCR confirmed the expression of B 2 receptor mRNA, but not B 1 receptor mRNA. 3. Binding of fluorescently- labeled HOE-140 (HOE741) was localized to ganglion cells in wholemount preparations. BK B 2 receptors were coexpressed with immunoreactivity for calbindin or nitric oxide synthase. 4. Exposure to BK suppressed the amplitude of both fast and slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Depolarizing responses evoked by application of serotonin or substance P and nicotinic responses to acetylcholine were not reduced by BK. This suggested that BK action on neurotransmission was presynaptic suppression of neurotransmitter release. Presence of HOE-140 in the bathing solution suppressed or abolished the presynaptic inhibitory action of BK. 5. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor, piroxicam, suppressed both the direct excitatory action of BK and its presynaptic inhibitory action. Application of prostaglandin E 2, D 2, F 2α or I 2 mimicked the BK-evoked responses. 6. The results suggest that BK acts at B 2 BK receptors on myenteric neurones to stimulate the formation of prostaglandins. Once formed and released, the prostaglandins act to elevate the excitability of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus and to suppress the synaptic release of neurotransmitters.
- Emetic nervous system
- Myenteric plexus