The lung biopsy is an established procedure to procure a pathologic diagnosis in a child with a suspected pneumonic process of undetermined etiology. Improvements in pediatric anesthesia and surgery have reduced the operative complications to a minimum. A biopsy can usually be taken through a small intercostal incision when localization is not especially important in a patient with diffuse changes (see Chapter 1). The alternative method for tissue sampling is the endoscopic transbronchial biopsy. There is less risk to the patient, but the specimen is smaller and crush artifacts from the instrument are more common.