Accuracy of Kalman Filtering in Forecasting Visual Field and Intraocular Pressure Trajectory in Patients with Ocular Hypertension

Gian Gabriel P. Garcia, Mariel S. Lavieri, Chris Andrews, Xiang Liu, Mark P. Van Oyen, Michael A. Kass, Mae O. Gordon, Joshua D. Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Importance: Techniques that properly identify patients in whom ocular hypertension (OHTN) is likely to progress to open-angle glaucoma can assist clinicians with deciding on the frequency of monitoring and the potential benefit of early treatment. Objective: To test whether Kalman filtering (KF), a machine learning technique, can accurately forecast mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation, and intraocular pressure values 5 years into the future for patients with OHTN. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was a secondary analysis of data from patients with OHTN from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study, performed between February 1994 and March 2009. Patients underwent tonometry and perimetry every 6 months for up to 15 years. A KF (KF-OHTN) model was trained, validated, and tested to assess how well it could forecast MD, pattern standard deviation, and intraocular pressure at up to 5 years, and the forecasts were compared with results from the actual trial. Kalman filtering for OHTN was compared with a previously developed KF for patients with high-tension glaucoma (KF-HTG) and 3 traditional forecasting algorithms. Statistical analysis for the present study was performed between May 2018 and May 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prediction error and root-mean-square error at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months for MD, pattern standard deviation, and intraocular pressure. Results: Among 1407 eligible patients (2806 eyes), 809 (57.5%) were female and the mean (SD) age at baseline was 57.5 (9.6) years. For 2124 eyes with sufficient measurements, KF-OHTN forecast MD values 60 months into the future within 0.5 dB of the actual value for 696 eyes (32.8%), 1.0 dB for 1295 eyes (61.0%), and 2.5 dB for 1980 eyes (93.2%). Among the 5 forecasting algorithms tested, KF-OHTN achieved the lowest root-mean-square error (1.72 vs 1.85-4.28) for MD values 60 months into the future. For the subset of eyes that progressed to open-angle glaucoma, KF-OHTN and KF-HTG forecast MD values 60 months into the future within 1 dB of the actual value for 30 eyes (68.2%; 95% CI, 54.4%-82.0%) and achieved the lowest root-mean-square error among all models. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that machine learning algorithms such as KF can accurately forecast MD, pattern standard deviation, and intraocular pressure 5 years into the future for many patients with OHTN. These algorithms may aid clinicians in managing OHTN in their patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1416-1423
Number of pages8
JournalJAMA Ophthalmology
Volume137
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2019

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