Importance: Techniques that properly identify patients in whom ocular hypertension (OHTN) is likely to progress to open-angle glaucoma can assist clinicians with deciding on the frequency of monitoring and the potential benefit of early treatment. Objective: To test whether Kalman filtering (KF), a machine learning technique, can accurately forecast mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation, and intraocular pressure values 5 years into the future for patients with OHTN. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was a secondary analysis of data from patients with OHTN from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study, performed between February 1994 and March 2009. Patients underwent tonometry and perimetry every 6 months for up to 15 years. A KF (KF-OHTN) model was trained, validated, and tested to assess how well it could forecast MD, pattern standard deviation, and intraocular pressure at up to 5 years, and the forecasts were compared with results from the actual trial. Kalman filtering for OHTN was compared with a previously developed KF for patients with high-tension glaucoma (KF-HTG) and 3 traditional forecasting algorithms. Statistical analysis for the present study was performed between May 2018 and May 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prediction error and root-mean-square error at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months for MD, pattern standard deviation, and intraocular pressure. Results: Among 1407 eligible patients (2806 eyes), 809 (57.5%) were female and the mean (SD) age at baseline was 57.5 (9.6) years. For 2124 eyes with sufficient measurements, KF-OHTN forecast MD values 60 months into the future within 0.5 dB of the actual value for 696 eyes (32.8%), 1.0 dB for 1295 eyes (61.0%), and 2.5 dB for 1980 eyes (93.2%). Among the 5 forecasting algorithms tested, KF-OHTN achieved the lowest root-mean-square error (1.72 vs 1.85-4.28) for MD values 60 months into the future. For the subset of eyes that progressed to open-angle glaucoma, KF-OHTN and KF-HTG forecast MD values 60 months into the future within 1 dB of the actual value for 30 eyes (68.2%; 95% CI, 54.4%-82.0%) and achieved the lowest root-mean-square error among all models. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that machine learning algorithms such as KF can accurately forecast MD, pattern standard deviation, and intraocular pressure 5 years into the future for many patients with OHTN. These algorithms may aid clinicians in managing OHTN in their patients.