Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are one of the main mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. Dysregulation of histone PTMs leads to many human diseases, such as cancer. Because of its high throughput, accuracy, and flexibility, mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a powerful tool in the epigenetic histone modification field, allowing the comprehensive and unbiased analysis of histone PTMs and chromatin-associated factors. Coupled with various techniques from molecular biology, biochemistry, chemical biology, and biophysics, MS has been used to characterize distinct aspects of histone PTMs in the epigenetic regulation of chromatin functions. In this review, we will describe advancements in the field of MS that have facilitated the analysis of histone PTMs and chromatin biology.