Introduction: Point-by-point 3-dimensional (3D) electroanatomic mapping (EAM) is used to guide catheter ablation of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs). Due to the differences in the spatial excursion of the cardiac chambers during cardiac cycles in PVCs vs sinus rhythm, the 3D location registration during PVCs is shifted relative to sinus rhythm. In this study, we describe our strategy to adjust for this displacement in real-time during PVC mapping. Methods and Results: We report 21 patients who underwent catheter ablation of 23 unique PVCs using Carto 3. After mapping the earliest site for each PVC, we reregistered its 3D location to a sinus rhythm beat in real-time, and used this to guide ablation lesion delivery. The PVC earliest location was spatially displaced from the successful ablation lesion in sinus rhythm by average 6.7 (range 3.3–13.0) mm. Offline, we subsequently analyzed 25 unique chamber maps and 606 PVC points. For each point, we reregistered the 3D location to a preceding sinus beat. The PVC points were displaced from sinus rhythm location by average 4.4 (0.3–13.7) mm. The maximally displaced point for each chamber was 7.7 (4.7–13.7) mm. The general direction of shift during PVC was leftward and inferior relative to sinus rhythm. Conclusions: During electroanatomic mapping of PVCs using the Carto 3 system, points mapped during PVCs are spatially displaced relative to their location in sinus rhythm. Electrophysiologists should recognize this phenomenon and account for the shift to guide accurate delivery of ablation lesions.
- catheter ablation
- electroanatomic mapping
- premature ventricular complexes