Background. Lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is a well-recognized complication after lung transplantation. However, its presentation in the abdomen and pelvis has not been previously detailed. Methods. We retrospectively identified cases of abdominal-pelvic LPD in lung transplant recipients. The cases were characterized clinically, and the outcomes were analyzed. Results. Abdominal-pelvic LPD was identified in 19 of 603 adult patients who underwent lung or heart-lung transplantation at Barnes-Jewish Hospital between July 1, 1988 and December 31, 2001. The median time from transplantation to the onset of LPD was 5.8 years. Three cases presented early after transplantation (median, 175 days), and 16 cases presented late (median, 2,255 days). The time to diagnosis of LPD was significantly shorter for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seronegative than for EBV-seropositive recipients (median, 175 vs. 2255 days; log-rank, P<0.001). Seventeen cases were non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, one was a Burkitt's lymphoma, and one was an atypical lymphoid proliferation. Among the 19 cases, 12 involved the gastrointestinal tract and 7 occurred in other sites. Immunosuppressive therapy was decreased in all patients. Eleven underwent surgical resection, and nine received chemotherapy. Sixteen patients have died, and 14 deaths were attributable to LPD. The median time from the diagnosis of LPD to death was 68 days. Conclusions. Abdominal-pelvic LPD is typically a late complication after lung transplantation; however, when it occurs early, it may be related to a primary EBV infection. This form of LPD is most frequently a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and despite aggressive therapy, the prognosis is poor.