Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is an AIDS-defining illness caused by the opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. This organism possesses an elaborate polysaccharide capsule that is unique among pathogenic fungi, and the glycobiology of C. neoformans has been a focus of research in the field. The capsule and other cellular glycans and glycoconjugates have been described, but the machinery responsible for their synthesis remains largely unexplored. We recently discovered Xpt1p, an enzyme with the unexpected activity of generating a xylosephosphate-mannose linkage. We now demonstrate that this novel activity is conserved throughout the C. neoformans species complex, localized to the Golgi apparatus, and functions in the O-glycosylation of proteins. We also present the first survey of O-glycans from C. neoformans.