Fast cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) has comparative advantages over tagged MRI (TMRI) including higher spatial resolution and faster post-processing. This study computed regional radial and circumferential myocardial strains with DENSE displacements and validated it in reference to TMRI, according to American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for standardized segmentation of regions in the left ventricle (LV). This study was therefore novel in examining agreement between the modalities in 16 AHA recommended LV segments. DENSE displacements were obtained with spatiotemporal phase unwrapping and TMRI displacements obtained with a conventional tag-finding algorithm. A validation study with a rotating phantom established similar shear strain between modalities prior to in vivo studies. A novel meshfree nearest node finite element method (NNFEM) was used for rapid computation of Lagrange strain in both phantom and in vivo studies in both modalities. Also novel was conducting in vivo repeatability studies for observing recurring strain patterns in DENSE and increase confidence in it. Comprehensive regional strain agreements via Bland-Altman analysis between the modalities were obtained. Results from the phantom study showed similar radial-circumferential shear strains from the two modalities. Mean differences in regional in vivo circumferential strains were 20.01 ± 0.09 (95% limits of agreement) from comparing the modalities and 20.01 ± 0.07 from repeatability studies. Differences and means from comparison and repeatability studies were uncorrelated (p > 0.05) indicating no increases in differences with increased strain magnitudes. Bland-Altman analysis and similarities in regional strain distribution within the myocardium showed good agreements between DENSE and TMRI and show their interchangeability. NNFEM was also established as a common framework for computing strain in both modalities.
- Bland-Altman analysis
- Lagrange strain
- Meshfree analysis
- Nearest node finite element analysis (NNFEM)