A study protocol for e-PainSupport: The use of a digital application for reporting pain and pain management in home hospice

Masako Mayahara, Jo Ellen Wilbur, Arlene Michaels Miller, Louis Fogg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


High pain intensity is commonly experienced by patients with serious advanced illness. Impediments to improving pain intensity in home hospice include poor adherence to a pain management regimen due to caregivers' lack of knowledge and self-efficacy (confidence) in administering analgesics. e-PainSupport is a self-administered, digital application directly linked to patients' medical records. It has three elements: Education Module, Patient Pain Record, and the Pain Summary for Nurses. This study will test the effects of e-PainSupport on pain intensity when used by patients, caregivers, and nurses. The study's specific aims are as follows: Aim 1, compare the effects of e-PainSupport to a standard care condition, controlling for covariates (role [patient or caregiver], age, sex, ethnicity, education, and patient's diagnosis), on clinical improvement in pain intensity (primary outcome) and significant improvement on a pain intensity scale (secondary outcome); Aim 2, examine the mediating effects of patient and caregiver knowledge, self-efficacy, and adherence on change in pain intensity during 2 weeks, controlling for covariates and treatment condition; and Aim 3, identify nurses' perceptions of the use of e-PainSupport, including facilitators for and barriers to integration into agency workflow and benefits for patients. Participants (132 triads of patients, caregivers, and hospice nurses) will be recruited from Midwest hospice agencies. Patient and caregiver outcomes will be assessed at baseline and 2 weeks later. Data will be analyzed with multilevel modeling. Post-intervention, semi-structured interviews with nurses in the e-PainSupport condition will be analyzed using qualitative content analysis to identify perceived practice changes. e-PainSupport has the potential to facilitate nurse-patient communication and improve hospice patient pain management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101071
JournalContemporary Clinical Trials Communications
StatePublished - Dec 2023


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