This study investigated the existence of neurotrophism in a primate model. In eight adult cynomolgus monkeys the sensory component of the femoral nerve was sectioned and introduced into the proximal channel of a silicone Y chamber. The proximal stump was given distal choices of various tissues inserted into the remaining arms of the silicone Y chamber. The targets presented were combinations of tendon, muscle, intact distal nerve, distal nerve graft, or an empty silicone channel. After 6 weeks, ultrastructural analysis confirmed axonal growth toward distal nerve tissue, while minimal or no nerve regeneration was directed toward tendon, muscle, or the empty silicone channel. The results showed that either a distal nerve stump or a nerve graft will act as a specific target to the regenerating primate proximal nerve stump.