Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal hematopoietic disorders characterized by bone marrow failure which frequently progress to acute myeloid leukemia. Patients who fail to respond to, or progress on first-line DNA hypomethylating agents (HMA) have a poor prognosis. Conventionally dosed lenalidomide has activity in 5q-MDS. In other subtypes, it may reduce RBC transfusion requirements but does not result in cytogenetic responses. We previously reported that high-dose lenalidomide induction (50 mg/day) results in complete remissions in a high fraction of patients. We, therefore, conducted a Phase 2 trial of the same regimen in MDS refractory to HMA. Marrow complete remissions were seen in 33% of patients and hematological improvement in 8% of patients. Significant infections complicated more than 50% of cases. Future trials to explore alternative dosing schedules of high-dose lenalidomide to increase efficacy while decreasing toxicity are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2535-2540
Number of pages6
JournalLeukemia and Lymphoma
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016


  • Chemotherapeutic approaches
  • myeloid leukemias and dysplasias
  • pharmacotherapeutics


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