A small-signal approach to temporal modulation transfer functions with exposure-rate dependence and its application to fluoroscopic detective quantum efficiency

S. N. Friedman, I. A. Cunningham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is a metric widely used in radiography to quantify system performance and as a surrogate measure of patient "dose efficiency." It has been applied previously to fluoroscopic systems with the introduction of a temporal correction factor. Calculation of this correction factor relies on measurements of the temporal modulation transfer function (MTF). However, the temporal MTF is often exposure-rate dependent, violating a necessary Fourier linearity requirement. The authors show that a Fourier analysis is appropriate for fluoroscopic systems if a "small-signal" approach is used. Using a semitransparent edge, a lag-corrected DQE is described and measured for an x-ray image intensifier-based fluoroscopic system under continuous (nonpulsed) exposure conditions. It was found that results were equivalent for both rising and falling-edge profiles independent of edge attenuation when effective attenuation was in the range of 0.10.6. This suggests that this range is appropriate for measuring the small-signal temporal MTF. In general, lag was greatest at low exposure rates. It was also found that results obtained using a falling-edge profile with a radiopaque edge were equivalent to the small-signal results for the test system. If this result is found to be true generally, it removes the need for the small-signal approach. Lag-corrected DQE values were validated by comparison with radiographic DQE values obtained using very long exposures under the same conditions. Lag was observed to inflate DQE measurements by up to 50% when ignored.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3775-3785
Number of pages11
JournalMedical physics
Volume36
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Detective quantum efficiency
  • Edge
  • Edge spread function
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Lag
  • Line spread function
  • Modulation transfer function
  • Temporal modulation transfer function
  • X-ray imaging

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