A review of spinal injuries in the invasive cardiologist: Part 1. Biomechanics and pain generation

Yazid Y. Fadl, Kenneth A. Ellenbogen, Robert L. Grubb, Lynnette Khoo-Summers, Bruce D. Lindsay

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


This review provides a perspective of spinal injuries related to invasive cardiology, an understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the spine, the etiology and pathophysiology of spinal injuries, and options for prevention and treatment. Because of the breadth of this review, it has been divided into two parts with the first describing the biomechanics and generation of back pain and the second discussing treatment options and prevention of back injury. A comprehensive overview of the biomechanics of the spine from the individual vertebral unit to the complex motions involved in everyday life is reviewed. The significant intrinsic and extrinsic factors playing a role in the mechanism of disc damage, including occupational hazards encountered by the invasive cardiologist, are discussed. We also address the mechanisms of pain generation in the spine and the role that inflammation plays, which explains the presence of symptoms with little or no detectable pathology on imaging studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1012-1019
Number of pages8
JournalPACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2007


  • Acute treatment
  • Biomechanism
  • Etiology
  • Inflammation
  • Invasive cardiology
  • Pain generation
  • Spinal injury


Dive into the research topics of 'A review of spinal injuries in the invasive cardiologist: Part 1. Biomechanics and pain generation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this