Background: Vaccination is the primary strategy to reduce influenza burden. Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) can vary annually depending on circulating strains. Methods: We used a test-negative case-control study design to estimate influenza VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations among children (aged 6 months-17 years) across 5 influenza seasons in Atlanta, Georgia, from 2012-2013 to 2016-2017. Influenza-positive cases were randomly matched to test-negative controls based on age and influenza season in a 1:1 ratio. We used logistic regression models to compare odds ratios (ORs) of vaccination in cases to controls. We calculated VE as [100% × (1 - adjusted OR)] and computed 95% confidence intervals (CIs) around the estimates. Results: We identified 14 596 hospitalizations of children who were tested for influenza using the multiplex respiratory molecular panel; influenza infection was detected in 1017 (7.0%). After exclusions, we included 512 influenza-positive cases and 512 influenza-negative controls. The median age was 5.9 years (interquartile range, 2.7-10.3), 497 (48.5%) were female, 567 (55.4%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 654 (63.9%) children were unvaccinated. Influenza A accounted for 370 (72.3%) of 512 cases and predominated during all 5 seasons. The adjusted VE against influenza-related hospitalizations during 2012-2013 to 2016-2017 was 51.3% (95% CI, 34.8% to 63.6%) and varied by season. Influenza VE was 54.7% (95% CI, 37.4% to 67.3%) for influenza A and 37.1% (95% CI, 2.3% to 59.5%) for influenza B. Conclusions: Influenza vaccination decreased the risk of influenza-related pediatric hospitalizations by >50% across 5 influenza seasons.
- Influenza vaccine effectiveness