Background: The outcomes of endovascular interventions of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are variable. Completion angiography is typically performed to confirm satisfactory outcomes after SFA angioplasty and/or stenting. However, two-dimensional angiography may not accurately reflect the extent of residual stenosis. We sought to determine whether intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can help with residual disease assessment and procedure outcome. Methods: Patients with anticipated SFA disease were prospectively recruited to the study. Patients with primary SFA disease on diagnostic angiography were included. After SFA endovascular intervention with angioplasty and/or stenting, a completion angiogram was performed to confirm satisfactory results before IVUS evaluation. IVUS-detected maximal residual stenosis, maximal residual lesion volume, and number of nonconsecutive posttreatment SFA segments with >50% residual stenosis were evaluated. Periprocedural ankle-brachial indexes (ABIs), Short Form 36 (SF-36) surveys, and Walking Impairment Questionnaires were also collected. Results: Fifty-nine patients were prospectively enrolled. Thirty-three received angioplasty only, and 26 received angioplasty and stenting. All patients were men, mean age was 67 years, and major comorbidities included coronary artery disease (53%), active smoking (56%), hypertension (88%), and diabetes (68%). The angioplasty-only cohort had more nonconsecutive areas of >50% residual stenosis (P = 0.004), greater residual stenosis (P = 0.03), and smaller minimal lumen diameters after treatment (P = 0.01) than the angioplasty and stenting cohort. However, there was no significant difference in ABI between the 2 groups and no difference in ABI improvement after intervention. Sixty-four percent of all patients demonstrated a >0.2 increase in postintervention ABI. Improvement in ABI at 1 month after procedure significantly correlated with postintervention SF-36 survey physical scores (r = 0.435, P = 0.007). Conclusions: IVUS evaluation provides more-accurate intraprocedural insight on the extent of residual stenosis after SFA interventions. Future studies are warranted to determine whether IVUS-guided postangioplasty and/or stenting can impact long-term interventional outcome.