Many twin studies have identified sex differences in the influence of genetic and environmental factors on smoking behaviors. We explore the evidence for sex differences for smoking initiation and cigarette consumption in a sample of Australian twin families, and extend these models to incorporate sex differences in linkage analyses for these traits. We further examine the impact of including or excluding non-smokers in genetic analyses of tobacco consumption. Accounting for sex differences improved linkage results in some instances. We identified one region suggestive of linkage on chromosome 11p12. This locus, as well as another region identified on chromosome 6p12, replicates regions identified in previous studies.
- Sex differences
- Twin study