Immunotherapy agents for treatment of cancer have been investigated for decades, but effective agents have only recently been identified and are increasingly being used in multiple cancer types. There is growing recognition of adverse side effects in multiple organ systems mediated by dysregulation of the immune system, which can be exacerbated by comorbidities often found in cancer patients such as chronic lung disease, diabetes, and hypertension. As a result, internists and other nononcology clinicians are routinely encountering immunotherapy patients who present with a remarkably wide range of symptoms. Here, we present the radiographic manifestations of common side effects from immunotherapy agents. An accurate diagnosis is critical in these often-complex clinical settings in which the consequences of the underlying cancer and other comorbidities must be distinguished from the variable manifestations of treatment toxicity.
- Immune-related adverse effects