The Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 type III effector HopAM1 suppresses plant immunity and contains a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain homologous to immunity-related TIR domains of plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors that hydrolyze nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and activate immunity. In vitro and in vivo assays were conducted to determine if HopAM1 hydrolyzes NAD+ and if the activity is essential for HopAM1’s suppression of plant immunity and contribution to virulence. HPLC and LC-MS were utilized to analyze metabolites produced from NAD+ by HopAM1 in vitro and in both yeast and plants. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression and in planta inoculation assays were performed to determine HopAM1’s intrinsic enzymatic activity and virulence contribution. HopAM1 is catalytically active and hydrolyzes NAD+ to produce nicotinamide and a novel cADPR variant (v2-cADPR). Expression of HopAM1 triggers cell death in yeast and plants dependent on the putative catalytic residue glutamic acid 191 (E191) within the TIR domain. Furthermore, HopAM1’s E191 residue is required to suppress both pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity and promote P. syringae virulence. HopAM1 manipulates endogenous NAD+ to produce v2-cADPR and promote pathogenesis. This work suggests that HopAM1’s TIR domain possesses different catalytic specificity than other TIR domain-containing NAD+ hydrolases and that pathogens exploit this activity to sabotage NAD+ metabolism for immune suppression and virulence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)890-904
Number of pages15
JournalNew Phytologist
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • HopAM1
  • NAD
  • NAD hydrolase
  • Pseudomonas syringae
  • TIR domain
  • cADPR variant
  • v-cADPR
  • v2-cADPR


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