Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is contracted via aerosol infection, typically affecting the lungs. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine and has variable efficacy in protecting against pulmonary TB. Additionally, chemotherapy is associated with low compliance contributing to development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mtb. Thus, there is an urgent need for the design of more effective vaccines against TB. Experimental vaccines delivered through the mucosal route induce robust T helper type 17 (Th17)/ Interleukin (IL) -17 responses and provide superior protection against Mtb infection. Thus, the development of safe mucosal adjuvants for human use is critical. In this study, we demonstrate that nanoemulsion (NE)-based adjuvants when delivered intranasally along with Mtb specific immunodominant antigens (NE-TB vaccine) induce potent mucosal IL-17 T-cell responses. Additionally, the NE-TB vaccine confers significant protection against Mtb infection, and when delivered along with BCG, is associated with decreased disease severity. These findings strongly support the development of a NE-TB vaccine as a novel, safe and effective, first-of-kind IL-17 inducing mucosal vaccine for potential use in humans.
- IL-17 Responses
- Mucosal vaccines