Accurate sorting of beam projections is important in 4D cone beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) to improve the quality of the reconstructed 4D CBCT image by removing motion-induced artifacts. We propose image registration-based projection binning (IRPB), a novel marker-less binning method for 4D CBCT projections, which combines intensity-based feature point detection and trajectory tracking using random sample consensus. IRPB extracts breathing motion and phases by analyzing tissue feature point trajectories. We conducted experiments with two phantom and six patient datasets, including both regular and irregular respirations. In experiments, we compared the performance of the proposed IRPB, Amsterdam Shroud method (AS), Fourier transform-based method (FT), and local intensity feature tracking method (LIFT). The results showed that the average absolute phase shift of IRPB was 3.74 projections and 0.48 projections less than that of FT and LIFT, respectively. AS lost the most breathing cycles in the respiration extraction for the five patient datasets, so we could not compare the average absolute phase shift between IRPB and AS. Based on the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of the reconstructed 4D CBCT images, IRPB had 5.08, 1.05, and 2.90 dB larger PSNR than AS, FT, and LIFT, respectively. The average Structure SIMilarity Index (SSIM) of the 4D CBCT image reconstructed by IRPB, AS, and LIFT were 0.87, 0.74, 0.84, and 0.70, respectively. These results demonstrated that IRPB has superior performance to the other standard methods.
- Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)
- image registration
- projection binning
- respiratory signal