A novel cholesterol-insensitive mode of membrane binding promotes cytolysin-mediated translocation by Streptolysin O

Cara C. Mozola, N'Goundo Magassa, Michael G. Caparon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Summary: Cytolysin-mediated translocation (CMT), performed by Streptococcus pyogenes, utilizes the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin Streptolysin O (SLO) to translocate the NAD+-glycohydrolase (SPN) into the host cell during infection. SLO is required for CMT and can accomplish this activity without pore formation, but the details of SLO's interaction with the membrane preceding SPN translocation are unknown. Analysis of binding domain mutants of SLO and binding domain swaps between SLO and homologous cholesterol-dependent cytolysins revealed that membrane binding by SLO is necessary but not sufficient for CMT, demonstrating a specific requirement for SLO in this process. Despite being the only known receptor for SLO, this membrane interaction does not require cholesterol. Depletion of cholesterol from host membranes and mutation of SLO's cholesterol recognition motif abolished pore formation but did not inhibit membrane binding or CMT. Surprisingly, SLO requires the coexpression and membrane localization of SPN to achieve cholesterol-insensitive membrane binding; in the absence of SPN, SLO's binding is characteristically cholesterol-dependent. SPN's membrane localization also requires SLO, suggesting a co-dependent, cholesterol-insensitive mechanism of membrane binding occurs, resulting in SPN translocation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)675-687
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular Microbiology
Volume94
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014

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