The domestic cat (Felis catus) numbers over 94 million in the USA alone, occupies households as a companion animal, and, like humans, suffers from cancer and common and rare diseases. However, genome-wide sequence variant information is limited for this species. To empower trait analyses, a new cat genome reference assembly was developed from PacBio long sequence reads that significantly improve sequence representation and assembly contiguity. The whole genome sequences of 54 domestic cats were aligned to the reference to identify single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and structural variants (SVs). Across all cats, 16 SNVs predicted to have deleterious impacts and in a singleton state were identified as high priority candidates for causative mutations. One candidate was a stop gain in the tumor suppressor FBXW7. The SNV is found in cats segregating for feline mediastinal lymphoma and is a candidate for inherited cancer susceptibility. SV analysis revealed a complex deletion coupled with a nearby potential duplication event that was shared privately across three unrelated cats with dwarfism and is found within a known dwarfism associated region on cat chromosome B1. This SV interrupted UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UGDH), a gene involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans. Importantly, UGDH has not yet been associated with human dwarfism and should be screened in undiagnosed patients. The new high-quality cat genome reference and the compilation of sequence variation demonstrate the importance of these resources when searching for disease causative alleles in the domestic cat and for identification of feline biomedical models.