A Nationwide Study of Inpatient Admissions, Mortality, and Costs for Patients with Cirrhosis from 2005 to 2015 in the USA

Biyao Zou, Yee Hui Yeo, Donghak Jeong, Haesuk Park, Edward Sheen, Dong Hyun Lee, Linda Henry, Gabriel Garcia, Erik Ingelsson, Ramsey Cheung, Mindie H. Nguyen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Background and Aims: Liver cirrhosis is a substantial health burden in the USA, but population-based data regarding the trend and medical expenditure are limited and outdated. We investigated the trends of inpatient admissions, costs, and inpatient mortality from 2005 to 2015 among cirrhotic patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample database. We adjusted the costs to 2015 US dollars using a 3% inflation rate. National estimates of admissions were determined using discharge weights. Results: We identified 1,627,348 admissions in cirrhotic patients between 2005 and 2015. From 2005 to 2015, the number of weighted admissions in cirrhotic patients almost doubled (from 505,032 to 961,650) and the total annual hospitalization cost in this population increased three times (from 5.8 to 16.3 billion US dollars). Notably, admission rates varied by liver disease etiology, decreasing from 2005 to 2015 among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis while increasing (almost tripled) among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-related cirrhosis. The annual inpatient mortality rate per 1000 admissions overall decreased from 63.8 to 58.2 between 2005 and 2015 except for NAFLD (27.2 to 35.8) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Rates and costs of admissions in cirrhotic patients have increased substantially between 2005 and 2015 in the USA, but varied by liver disease etiology, with decreasing rate for HCV-associated cirrhosis and for HBV-associated cirrhosis but increasing for NAFLD-associated cirrhosis. Inpatient mortality also increased by one-third for NAFLD, while it decreased for other diseases. Cost also varied by etiology and lower for HCV-associated cirrhosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1520-1528
Number of pages9
JournalDigestive diseases and sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2020


  • HBV
  • HCV
  • Hepatitis b virus
  • Hepatitis c virus
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease


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