A National Quality Improvement Collaborative to Improve Antibiotic Use in Pediatric Infections

Russell J. McCulloh, Ellen Kerns, Ricky Flores, Rachel Cane, Rana E. El Feghaly, Jennifer R. Marin, Jessica L. Markham, Jason G. Newland, Marie E. Wang, Matthew Garber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nearly 25% of antibiotics prescribed to children are inappropriate or unnecessary, subjecting patients to avoidable adverse medication effects and cost. METHODS: We conducted a quality improvement initiative across 118 hospitals participating in the American Academy of Pediatrics Value in Inpatient Pediatrics Network 2020 to 2022. We aimed to increase the proportion of children receiving appropriate: (1) empirical, (2) definitive, and (3) duration of antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, and urinary tract infections to $85% by Jan 1, 2022. Sites reviewed encounters of children >60 days old evaluated in the emergency department or hospital. Interventions included monthly audit with feedback, educational webinars, peer coaching, order sets, and a mobile app containing site-specific, antibiogram-based treatment recommendations. Sites submitted 18 months of baseline, 2-months washout, and 10 months intervention data. We performed interrupted time series (analyses for each measure. RESULTS: Sites reviewed 43 916 encounters (30 799 preintervention, 13 117 post). Overall median [interquartile range] adherence to empirical, definitive, and duration of antibiotic therapy was 67% [65% to 70%]; 74% [72% to 75%] and 61% [58% to 65%], respectively at baseline and was 72% [71% to 72%]; 79% [79% to 80%] and 71% [69% to 73%], respectively, during the intervention period. Interrupted time series revealed a 13% (95% confidence interval: 1% to 26%) intercept change at intervention for empirical therapy and a 1.1% (95% confidence interval: 0.4% to 1.9%) monthly increase in adherence per month for antibiotic duration above baseline rates. Balancing measures of care escalation and revisit or readmission did not increase. CONCLUSIONS: This multisite collaborative increased appropriate antibiotic use for community-acquired pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, and urinary tract infection among diverse hospitals.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2023062246
JournalPediatrics
Volume153
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2024

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