A multisite study of a breast density deep learning model for full-field digital mammography and synthetic mammography

Thomas P. Matthews, Sadanand Singh, Brent Mombourquette, Jason Su, Meet P. Shah, Stefano Pedemonte, Aaron Long, David Maffit, Jenny Gurney, Rodrigo Morales Hoil, Nikita Ghare, Douglas Smith, Steve Moore, Susan C. Marks, Richard L. Wahl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Purpose: To develop a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density deep learning (DL) model in a multisite setting for synthetic two-dimensional mammographic (SM) images derived from digital breast tomosynthesis examinations by using full-field digital mammographic (FFDM) images and limited SM data. Materials and Methods: A DL model was trained to predict BI-RADS breast density by using FFDM images acquired from 2008 to 2017 (site 1: 57 492 patients, 187 627 examinations, 750 752 images) for this retrospective study. The FFDM model was evaluated by using SM datasets from two institutions (site 1: 3842 patients, 3866 examinations, 14 472 images, acquired from 2016 to 2017; site 2: 7557 patients, 16 283 examinations, 63 973 images, 2015 to 2019). Each of the three datasets were then split into training, validation, and test. Adaptation methods were investigated to improve performance on the SM datasets, and the effect of dataset size on each adaptation method was considered. Statistical significance was assessed by using CIs, which were estimated by bootstrapping. Results: Without adaptation, the model demonstrated substantial agreement with the original reporting radiologists for all three datasets (site 1 FFDM: linearly weighted Cohen k [kw ] = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.74, 0.76]; site 1 SM: kw = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.64, 0.78]; site 2 SM: kw = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.70, 0.75]). With adaptation, performance improved for site 2 (site 1: kw = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.66, 0.79], 0.71 vs 0.72, P = .80; site 2: kw = 0.79 [95% CI: 0.76, 0.81], 0.72 vs 0.79, P < .001) by using only 500 SM images from that site. Conclusion: A BI-RADS breast density DL model demonstrated strong performance on FFDM and SM images from two institutions without training on SM images and improved by using few SM images.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere200015
JournalRadiology: Artificial Intelligence
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021


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