The present meta-analysis pooled data from 5 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 432 patients with dyslipidemia treated with various doses of extended-release niacin. Data were analyzed for possible gender differences in response to treatment. At all doses, mean decreases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were greater in women than in men; differences were significant at doses of 1,000 mg (6.8% vs 0.2%, p = 0.006), 1,500 mg (11.3% vs 5.6%, p = 0.013), 2,000 mg (14.8% vs 6.9%, p = 0.010), and 3,000 mg (28.7% vs 17.7%, p = 0.006). Decreases in triglyceride levels also tended to be greater in women than in men but reached significance only at the 1,500-mg dose (28.6% vs 20.4%, p = 0.040). No similar trends or significant gender differences were noted in levels of lipoprotein(a) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This meta-analysis confirms that women respond as well as men, and possibly slightly better, to treatment with extended-release niacin and that it is a safe and effective treatment option for women with dyslipidemia.