A genome-wide linkage scan for steroids and SHBG levels in black and white families: The HERITAGE family study

Olavi Ukkola, Tuomo Rankinen, Jacques Gagnon, Arthur S. Leon, James S. Skinner, Jack H. Wilmore, D. C. Rao, Claude Bouchard

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45 Scopus citations


To identify loci-harboring genes affecting steroid hormone and SHBG plasma levels, a genomic-wide scan was performed in the HERITAGE Family Study at baseline. The following steroid hormones were assayed: androstane-3α, 17β-diol glucuronide, androsterone glucuronide, cortisol, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (OH-PROG), progesterone (PROG), pregnenolone ester, and testosterone. A total of 509 markers on the 22 autosomes were genotyped, and a maximum of 357 pairs of siblings from white families and 103 from black families were available for the study. Significant linkages with LOD scores over 3.6 (P < 2.2 × 10-5) for SHBG were observed in blacks on 1q44 (D1S321), 5p13.3 (D5S1986), 10q24.1 (D10S1239), and 12q12 (D12S1653) in both singlepoint and multipoint analyses. Promising evidence of linkage (1.75 < LOD < 3.6; 2.2 × 10-5 < P < 0.0023) for SHBG was observed on 1q44 in singlepoint analysis in whites. In addition, several other loci in blacks exhibited promising evidence of linkage, suggesting that many genes can potentially regulate SHBG levels. In the case of C21 steroids, promising linkages were found on 1q43 (D1S517) for PROG, 2p25.1 (D2S1400) for pregnenolone ester, and 18q21.32 (D18S38) for OH-PROG in whites and on 3q25.33 (D3S1763) for OH-PROG in blacks, both singlepoint and multipoint analyses (P < 0.0023). The strongest signals for C19 steroids were found on 22q12.3 for testosterone in whites (P = 0.0024 in multipoint) and on 8q22.1 for dihydrotestosterone in blacks. In blacks, the strongest evidence of linkage for estradiol (C18 steroid) was provided by marker D1S1588 on 1p21.3 and in whites by markers D2S2374 and D2S2347 on 2p21, and D6S465 on 6p12.3. Several genes encoding enzymes of the steroid biosynthesis pathways but also other potential candidate genes were located in the vicinity of the genomic regions showing evidence of linkage in this genomic scan.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3708-3720
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2002


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