Aim: To develop a fibrin-specific urokinase nanomedicine thrombolytic agent. Materials & Methods:In vitro fibrin-clot dissolution studies were utilized to develop and characterize simultaneous coupling and loading of anti-fibrin monoclonal antibody and urokinase onto perfluorocarbon nanoparticle (NP) surface. In vivo pharmacokinetics and fibrin-specific targeting of the nanolytic agent was studied in dogs. Results: Simultaneous coupling of up to 40 anti-fibrin antibodies and 400 urokinase enzymes per perfluorocarbon NP produced an effective targeted nanolytic agent with no significant surface protein-protein interference. Fibrin clot dissolution was not improved by increasing homing capacity from 10 to 40 antibodies/NP, but increasing enzymatic payload from 100 to 400/NP resulted in maximized lytic effect. Fluorescent microscopy showed that rhodamine-labeled urokinase nanoparticles densely decorated the intraluminal thrombus in canine clots in vivo analogous to the fibrin pattern, while an irrelevant-targeted agent had negligible binding. Conclusion: This agent offers a vascularly constrained, simple to administer, low-dose nanomedicine approach that may present an attractive alternative for treating acute stroke victims.
- emergency treatment of stroke
- targeted thrombolysis