A Comprehensive review of physical examination tests of the cervical spine, scapula, and rotator cuff

K. J. Hippensteel, Robert Brophy, Matthew V. Smith, Rick W. Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

A thorough physical examination of the shoulder and cervical spine is critical in establishing a focused differential diagnosis of the pathology in and around the shoulder joint. Numerous tests have been described in the literature to help improve the diagnostic accuracy of specific shoulder or cervical spine pathology. A comprehensive approach for the physical examination of the cervical spine, scapula, and rotator cuff is presented and descriptions on how the tests are performed and the evidence behind why specific tests are used in enabling improved diagnosis of shoulder pathology are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)385-394
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Volume27
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019

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