A Comprehensive Report of Intrinsically Disordered Regions in Inherited Retinal Diseases

Karen E. Lee, Jose S. Pulido, Mariana M. da Palma, Rebecca Procopio, Robert B. Hufnagel, Margaret Reynolds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background/purpose: A comprehensive review of the degree of disorder in all genes in the Retinal Information Network (RetNet) Database is implicated in inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). Their association with a missense variation was evaluated. Methods: IRD genes from RetNet were included in this study. Publicly available data on the genome aggregation database (gnomAD) were used to analyze the number of total and pathogenic missense variants. Metapredict, an accurate and high-performance predictor that reproduces consensus disorder scores, was used to calculate disorder. Main outcome measures: The main outcome measures were percent disorder, percent pathogenicity, number of total missense variants, and percent total missense variation. Results: We included 287 RetNet genes with relevant data available from gnomAD. Mean percent disorder was 26.3% ± 26.0%, mean percent pathogenicity was 5.2% ± 11.0%, mean number of total missense variants was 424.4 ± 450.0, and mean percent total missense was 50.0% ± 13.4%. The percent disorder followed a bimodal distribution with the highest number of occurrences in the 0 to 10th disorder decile. The five outlier proteins in the first disorder decile with a higher-than-expected number of total missense variation were identified (HMCN1, ADGRV, USH2A, DYNC2H1, LAMA1, and SLC38A8). When excluded, % total missense was significantly associated with percent disorder (R = 0.238 and p = 0.0240). Conclusions: This novel study examining all genes implicated in IRDs found that the majority genes had a disorder in the 0 to 10th decile and were relatively intolerant to missense variation. This may have future utility when interpreting variants of undetermined significance and missense variants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1601
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2023


  • genetics
  • IDR
  • inherited eye diseases
  • intrinsically disordered regions
  • IRD
  • proteins
  • RetNet


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