Introduction There is considerable effort at the state and national levels to monitor human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake and understand the factors that influence who gets vaccinated. Accurate measurement of vaccination coverage is critical for monitoring HPV vaccination. This study aimed to determine comparability between parent- and provider-reported HPV vaccination status for a sample of adolescents in the U.S. Methods Data from the 2014 National Immunization Survey−Teen were analyzed in 2016 for 20,827 adolescents. Information on HPV vaccine uptake (initiation [one or more dose] and completion [three or more doses]) was obtained using parental (recall) and provider reports (electronic medical records). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and κ-coefficient were computed to determine how comparable parental and provider (ref group) reports were for HPV vaccination. Results Prevalence of HPV vaccine initiation was comparable between parental and provider report (51.3% vs 50.0%) and for completion (30.7% vs 27.3%). Compared with provider report, parent-reported HPV vaccine initiation had high sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (87.4%), PPV (87.5%), NPV (85.9%), and acceptable κ-coefficient (0.73). Compared with provider report, parent-reported HPV vaccine completion had a sensitivity of 71.5%, specificity of 91.1%, PPV of 78.5%, NPV of 87.6%, and κ-coefficient of 0.64. Similar characteristics—adolescent age, sex, number of doctor visits, and region—were associated with HPV vaccine uptake using parental and provider reports. Conclusions Parental recall is comparable to provider report in monitoring HPV vaccine uptake for adolescents, although parental recall is less comparable for HPV vaccine completion.