BACKGROUND: Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) are frequently admitted for invasive infections. Medications for OUD (MOUD) may improve outcomes in hospitalized patients. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort of 220 admissions to a tertiary care center for invasive infections due to OUD, we compared 4 MOUD treatment strategies: methadone, buprenorphine, methadone taper for detoxification, and no medication to determine whether there were differences in parenteral antibiotic completion and readmission rates. RESULTS: The MOUDs were associated with increased completion of parenteral antimicrobial therapy (64.08% vs 46.15%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.23-3.61). On multivariate analysis, use of MOUD maintenance with either buprenorphine (OR = 0.38; 95% CI, .17-.85) or methadone maintenance (OR = 0.43; 95% CI, .20-.94) and continuation of MOUD on discharge (OR = 0.35; 95% CI, .18-.67) was associated with lower 90-day readmissions. In contrast, use of methadone for detoxification followed by tapering of the medication without continuation on discharge was not associated with decreased readmissions (OR = 1.87; 95% CI, .62-5.10). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term MOUDs, regardless of selection, are an integral component of care in patients hospitalized with OUD-related infections. Patients with OUD should have arrangements made for MOUDs to be continued after discharge, and MOUDs should not be discontinued before discharge.
- injection drug use
- medications for opioid use disorder
- opioid use disorder
- people who inject drugs (PWID)