Small-molecule inhibitors of translation are critical tools to study the molecular mechanisms of protein synthesis. In this study, we sought to characterize how QL47, a host-targeted, small-molecule antiviral agent, inhibits steady-state viral protein expression. We demonstrate that this small molecule broadly inhibits both viral and host protein synthesis and targets a translation step specific to eukaryotic cells. We show that QL47 inhibits protein neosynthesis initiated by both canonical cap-driven and noncanonical initiation strategies, most likely by targeting an early step in translation elongation. Our findings thus establish QL47 as a new small-molecule inhibitor that can be utilized to probe the eukaryotic translation machinery and that can be further developed as a new therapeutic agent.