Patients with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and multiple aortopulmonary collateral arteries (Tet PA MAPCAs) have a wide spectrum of anatomy and disease severity. Management of these patients can be challenging and often require multiple high-risk surgical and interventional catheterization procedures. These interventions are made challenging by complex anatomy that require the proceduralist to mentally reconstruct three-dimensional anatomic relationships from two-dimensional images. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging medical technology that provides added benefits in the management of patients with Tet PA MAPCAs. When used in combination with current diagnostic modalities and procedures, 3D printing provides a precise approach to the management of these challenging, high-risk patients. Specifically, 3D printing enables detailed surgical and interventional planning prior to the procedure, which may improve procedural outcomes, decrease complications, and reduce procedure-related radiation dose and contrast load.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5
JournalCurrent Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • 3D printing
  • Cardiac CT
  • Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries
  • Pulmonary atresia
  • Tetralogy of Fallot


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