3D Echocardiography Provides Highly Accurate 3D Printed Models in Congenital Heart Disease

K. L. Mowers, J. B. Fullerton, D. Hicks, G. K. Singh, M. C. Johnson, S. Anwar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Cardiac 3D printing is mainly performed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) 3D datasets, though anatomic detail of atrioventricular (AV) valves may be limited. 3D echo provides excellent visualization of AV valves. Thus, we tested the feasibility and accuracy of 3D printing from 3D echo in this pilot series of subjects with congenital heart disease (CHD), with a focus on valve anatomy. Five subjects with CHD were identified. 3D echo data were converted to 3D printable files and printed in collaboration with 3D Systems Healthcare (Golden, Colorado). A novel technique for valve modeling was utilized using commercially available software. Two readers (KM, SA) independently measured valve structures from 3D models and compared to source echo images. 3D printing was feasible for all cases. Table 1 shows measurements comparing 2D echo to 3D models. Bland Altman analysis showed close agreement and no significant bias between 2D and digital 3D models (mean difference 0.0, 95% CI 1.1 to − 1.1) or 2D vs printed 3D models, though with wider limits of agreement (mean difference − 0.3, 95% CI 1.9 to − 2.6). Accuracy of 3D models compared to 2D was within < 0.5 mm. This pilot study shows 3D echo datasets can be used to reliably print AV and semilunar valve structures in CHD. The 3D models are highly accurate compared to the source echo images. This is a novel and value-added technique that adds incremental information on cardiac anatomy over current methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-141
Number of pages11
JournalPediatric Cardiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • 3D echocardiography
  • 3D printing
  • Accuracy
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Valves


Dive into the research topics of '3D Echocardiography Provides Highly Accurate 3D Printed Models in Congenital Heart Disease'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this