2D/3D CMR tissue tracking versus CMR tagging in the assessment of spontaneous T2DM rhesus monkeys with isolated diastolic dysfunction

Tong Zhu, Wen Zeng, Yushu Chen, Yu Zhang, Jiayu Sun, Zhigang Liang, Zunyuan Yang, Wei Cheng, Lei Wang, Bin Song, Bing Wu, Fangtong Wang, Yinan Liang, Li Gong, Jie Zheng, Fabao Gao

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Background: Spontaneous T2DM in rhesus monkeys manifests as isolated diastolic dysfunction in the early stage of diabetic cardiomyopathy, similar to humans. Myocardial deformation measurements have emerged as a superior way to measure left ventricular (LV) function in the early stage of cardiac dysfunction, making it possible to further evaluate early-stage LV dysfunction in spontaneous T2DM rhesus monkeys. Methods: Spontaneous T2DM rhesus monkeys with isolated diastolic dysfunction (T2DM-DD, n=10) and corresponding nondiabetic healthy animals (ND, n=9) were prospectively scanned for a CMR study. Circumferential and longitudinal peak systolic strain (Ecc, Ell), time to peak strain (tEcc, tEll) and peak diastolic strain rate (CSR, LSR) obtained from 2D/3D CMR-TT were compared with those obtained from CMR tagging separately. In addition, all CMR imaging protocols were performed twice in 9 ND animals to assess test-retest reproducibility. Results: Compared with the ND group, the T2DM-DD monkeys demonstrated significantly impaired LV Ecc (-10.63±3.23 vs -14.18±3.19, p<0.05), CSR (65.50±14.48 vs 65.50±14.48, p<0.01), Ell (-9.11±2.59 vs -14.17±1.68, p<0.05), and LSR (59.43±19.17 vs 108.46±22.33, p<0.01) with the tagging. Only Ecc (-13.10±2.47 vs -19.03±3.69, p<0.01) and CSR (148.90±31.27 vs 202.00±51.88, p<0.01) were significantly reduced with 2D CMR-TT, and only Ecc (-13.77±1.98 vs -17.26±3.78, p<0.05) was significantly reduced with 3D CMR-TT. Moreover, 2D/3D CMR-TT-derived Ecc and CSR correlated with the corresponding tagging values collectively, with a statistically significant ICC value (p<0.05). Test-retest repeatability analysis showed that most tagging-derived biomarkers had acceptable repeatability (p<0.01). In addition, 2D CMR-TT-derived indicators were poorer than those derived from the tagging method but better than those obtained using the 3D method, with larger ICCs except for tEcc (p<0.05). Conclusions: LV systolic and diastolic deformations were impaired in spontaneous T2DM rhesus monkeys previously diagnosed with isolated diastolic dysfunction by echocardiography. The 2D CMR-TT-derived Ecc and CSR were effective in the evaluation of the myocardial systolic and diastolic functions of early-diabetic cardiomyopathy, with relatively higher test-retest reproducibility and acceptable correlation with the tagging method compared with the 3D CMR-TT method.

Original languageEnglish
Article number47
JournalBMC Medical Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 26 2018


  • Cardiac MRI
  • Diabetic cardiomyopathy
  • Rhesus monkey
  • Tagging
  • Tissue tracking


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