1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is a potent inducer of monocytic differentiation of the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60. We have noted that 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in high doses is also capable of promoting monocytic differentiation of this cell line. To test the possibility that the latter activity is due to conversion of 25OHD3 to 1,25(OH)2D3 by HL-60, we exposed HL-60 cells to 25OHD3 and analyzed the products by HPLC and radioreceptor assay. When chromatographed in the traditional solvent system (isopropanol-hexane), a new peak appears which migrates with authentic 1,25(OH)2D3. However, in a solvent system containing dichloromethane, 90% of the peak migrates with another metabolite, 19-Nor-10-Keto-25OHD3 (19-Nor-25OHD3). Production of this metabolite is enhanced by living cells and is synthesized by both virgin HL-60 and those which have undergone differentiation. We next determined if authentic 19-Nor-25OHD3 also promotes differentiation of this cell. As assessed by appearance of the monocyte-specific surface antigen (63D3) and macrophage-specific esterase activity, we find that this metabolite does, in fact, induce monocytic differentiation of HL-60 with a potency of approximately 1/200 that of 1,25(OH)2D3 and similar to that of 25OHD3. In agreement with the effect upon cell maturation, 19-Nor-25OHD3 displaces3H-1,25(OH)2D3 from its HL-60 receptor with an efficiency comparable to 25OHD3. Hence, HL-60 cells convert 25OHD3 to 19-Nor-25OHD3, and 19-Nor-25OHD3 induces monocytic differentiation of HL-60 with comparable efficiency to its precursor, 25OHD3.
- Cell differentiation