Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are highly disabling behavioral characteristics, common predictors of delinquency and criminality, and pathognomonic for antisocial personality disorder. They are highly heritable, but their specific molecular genetic causes are unknown. Here, we briefly review the literature on neuropsychiatric correlates of 22q11.2 duplication and describe a newly identified case of a 737-kb microduplication within the low copy repeat (LCR) B-D region, involving a 13-yr-old early adoptee with mild developmental delay and severe, chronic antisocial behavior of early childhood onset. When psychiatric symptoms have been reported in relation to duplications in this specific region, 19% of the reports feature aggression-but never previously CU traits-as a component of the phenotype. Wediscuss the potential implications of gain of function in this chromosomal region for heritable origins of sociopathy and their possible relation to genetic influences on aggression.