Background: Patients with pancreatic insufficient cystic fibrosis (PI-CF) meeting standard criteria for normal glucose tolerance display impaired β-cell secretory capacity and early-phase insulin secretion defects. We sought evidence of impaired β-cell secretory capacity, a measure of functional β-cell mass, among those with early glucose intolerance (EGI), defined as 1-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose ≥155 mg/dL (8.6 mmol/L). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Penn and CHOP Clinical & Translational Research Centers. PI-CF categorized by OGTT as normal (PI-NGT: 1-hour glucose <155 mg/dL and 2-hour <140 mg/dL [7.8 mmol/L]; n = 13), PI-EGI (1-hour ≥155 mg/dL and 2-hour <140 mg/dL; n = 13), impaired (PI-IGT: 2-hour ≥140 and <200 mg/dL [11.1 mmol/L]; n = 8), and diabetic (cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, CFRD: 2-hour ≥200 mg/dL; n = 8) participated. Post-prandial glucose tolerance and insulin secretion, and β-cell secretory capacity and demand were derived from mixed-meal tolerance tests (MMTTs), and glucose-potentiated arginine (GPA) tests, respectively. Results: PI-EGI had elevated post-prandial glucose with reduced early-phase insulin secretion during MMTT compared to PI-NGT (P <.05). PI-EGI also exhibited impaired acute insulin and C-peptide responses to GPA (P <.01 vs PI-NGT), measures of β-cell secretory capacity. Proinsulin secretory ratios were higher under hyperglycemic clamp conditions in PI-IGT and CFRD (P <.05 vs PI-NGT), and correlated with 1-hour glucose in PI-CF (P <.01). Conclusions: PI-CF patients with 1-hour OGTT glucose ≥155 mg/dL already manifest impaired β-cell secretory capacity with associated early-phase insulin secretion defects. Avoiding hyperglycemia in patients with EGI may be important for preventing excessive insulin demand indicated by disproportionately increased proinsulin secretion.
- cystic fibrosis-related diabetes
- early glucose intolerance
- insulin secretion
- proinsulin secretory ratio
- β-cell secretory capacity